# What is Finite state machines

##### Understanding Finite State Machines - The Foundation of AI Models

Finite state machines (FSMs) are the building blocks of artificial intelligence models, and they play a fundamental role in many AI applications, including natural language processing, robotics, and machine learning. FSMs represent the behavior of a system, robot, or agent by breaking it down into a set of states and transitions between them. In this article, we’ll explore FSMs in detail, including what they are, how they work, and why they’re important in AI.

##### What are Finite State Machines?

Finite state machines are mathematical models that represent the behavior of systems in terms of a finite number of states and the transitions between them. A state is a condition that a system, agent, or robot can be in at a given time. A transition, on the other hand, represents a change or movement from one state to another. FSMs are often used to model complex systems in discrete, finite steps, making it easier to analyze and understand their behavior.

FSMs can be implemented as a set of rules or a set of computer code that defines the behavior of a system or agent. These rules or code typically define the states that the system can be in, the possible transitions between these states, and the actions that are associated with each transition. FSMs can also have inputs and outputs, which allow them to interact with their environment or other systems.

##### How do Finite State Machines Work?

Finite state machines work by representing the behavior of a system or agent as a set of states and transitions between them. These states and transitions can be represented as a graph or a table, which allows the machine to move from one state to another based on the input it receives.

FSMs are typically defined by four components:

• States: These are the conditions that a system or agent can be in at any given time. They represent the different modes or phases of the system’s behavior.
• Transitions: These are the movements or changes that occur when a system or agent moves from one state to another. Transitions can be triggered by internal or external events.
• Inputs: These are the signals or data that the system or agent receives from its environment. Inputs can cause the system or agent to change state or take action.
• Outputs: These are the signals or data that the system or agent sends to its environment in response to its inputs or internal state changes.

When the system or agent receives an input, it checks its current state and the possible transitions that can occur based on that state and input. If a transition is possible, the system or agent moves to the new state and takes any associated actions.

##### Why are Finite State Machines Important in AI?

Finite state machines are important in AI because they provide a simple, effective way of modeling the behavior of complex systems, agents or robots. By breaking down the system's behavior into a set of discrete states and transitions, they simplify the system's description and make it easier to analyze and understand.

FSMs are particularly useful in natural language processing, where they are used to model the grammar of a language. A grammar can be represented as a set of states and transitions between them, where the state represents the current part of the sentence being parsed, and the transition represents the next part of the sentence.

FSMs are also used in robotics to model the behavior of robots, allowing them to respond appropriately to changes in their environment. For example, a robot might have a set of states that correspond to different parts of a room, with transitions that allow it to move between these states as it navigates the room.

FSMs are also used in machine learning algorithms, particularly in reinforcement learning, where they are used to model the behavior of agents in response to rewards or penalties. In this context, the states correspond to the current state of the environment, and the transitions correspond to the actions that the agent can take.

##### Conclusion

Finite state machines are the foundation of many AI models, providing a simple and effective way of modeling the behavior of complex systems, agents, or robots. By representing the behavior of these systems in terms of a finite number of states and transitions between them, FSMs simplify the system's description and make it easier to analyze and understand. Whether you're working in natural language processing, robotics, or machine learning, understanding FSMs is essential for building effective AI models.