What is Key-frame-based video summarization

Key-frame-based Video Summarization

Video data has been constantly increasing due to the emergence of new multimedia devices and technologies such as drones, surveillance cameras, smartphones, etc. With this, the need for efficient video analysis tools and techniques has become more crucial. Key-frame-based video summarization is one of the most widely used techniques for extracting important information from long videos.

Key-frame-based video summarization is a process of selecting a small subset of frames from a video that represent important events or information from the original video. These selected frames are called key frames, and they can be used to provide a quick overview of the video. Key-frame-based video summarization has a wide range of applications, including video browsing, video retrieval, and video surveillance.

In this article, we will discuss the key concepts of key-frame-based video summarization, its applications, challenges, and recent research advancements.

Key Concepts

Key-frame-based video summarization involves processing the video frames to identify the important frames that represent the contents of the video. These important frames can be identified based on different criteria such as visual appearance, semantic content, and user preference. Depending upon the application and the criteria for selecting the key frames, different techniques and algorithms can be used.

One of the widely used approaches for key-frame-based video summarization is the representative selection algorithm, in which a representative frame is selected from each segment of the video. These segments can be identified using different techniques, such as shot boundary detection, keyframe extraction, and object tracking. The representative frame is selected based on different criteria, such as the frame with the maximum or minimum distance from the other frames in the segment.

Another popular approach is clustering-based summarization, in which the frames are clustered into different groups based on their similarity. The clusters represent different important events or scenes from the original video, and a summary can be generated by selecting the representative frame from each cluster.


Key-frame-based video summarization has a wide range of applications. Some of these applications are discussed below.

  • Browsing: Key-frame-based video summarization can be used for browsing through long videos quickly. Users can get a quick overview of the video by looking at the key frames, and they can select the frames they are interested in viewing.
  • Retrieval: Key-frame-based video summarization can be used for content-based video retrieval, where users can search for videos based on their visual or semantic content. The key frames can be used to represent the content of the video, and the search results can be ranked based on their similarity to the query.
  • Surveillance: Key-frame-based video summarization can be used for surveillance applications, where the surveillance videos can be summarized to identify any suspicious activities or events quickly.

Key-frame-based video summarization also faces several challenges that need to be addressed to improve the quality and accuracy of the summaries. Some of these challenges are discussed below.

  • Subjectivity: The process of selecting key frames is subjective, and it depends on the criteria used for selection. Different users may have different preferences and priorities, which can lead to different key frames being selected for the same video.
  • Scalability: Key-frame-based video summarization becomes challenging with the increase in the size and complexity of the videos. Processing large videos requires more computational resources and time, which can affect the summarization performance.
  • Diversity: The selected key frames should represent different events or scenes from the original video to provide a diverse and informative summary. However, it becomes challenging when the video contains repetitive or similar content.
Recent Advancements

In recent years, several advancements have been made in the field of key-frame-based video summarization to overcome the challenges and improve the performance. Some of these advancements are discussed below.

  • Deep Learning-based approaches: Deep learning-based approaches have shown promising results in key-frame-based video summarization by automatically learning the features from the video frames. These approaches can handle large and complex videos and provide better performance compared to traditional approaches.
  • Multi-modal summarization: Multi-modal summarization involves combining different modalities, such as visual, audio, and textual, to generate a more informative summary. These modalities provide different perspectives to the video content, and the combination can lead to a better understanding of the video.
  • Interactive summarization: Interactive summarization involves involving the user in the summarization process by getting feedback and preferences from the user. This approach leads to a personalized summary that reflects the user's interests and priorities.

Key-frame-based video summarization is an important technique for extracting important information from long videos. It has a wide range of applications, including video browsing, retrieval, and surveillance. However, it also faces several challenges that need to be addressed. Recent advancements in deep learning-based approaches, multi-modal summarization, and interactive summarization have shown promising results in improving the performance of key-frame-based video summarization.