What is Unsupervised text classification

The Advancements in Unsupervised Text Classification

Text classification is a fundamental task in natural language processing (NLP). It involves assigning categories or labels to text data to aid decision-making, such as sentiment analysis, spam filtering, and topic modeling. Traditionally, supervised learning methods are used for text classification, which require labeled training data. However, labeling data can be time-consuming and costly, prompting the development of unsupervised text classification methods. In this article, we will delve deeper into unsupervised text classification techniques and their advancements over the recent years.

What is Unsupervised Text Classification?

Unsupervised text classification is an approach that does not require pre-labeled data, but instead, it seeks to automatically identify patterns and features in the data. It involves clustering similar data points together into groups, where each group represents a category or topic. Commonly used unsupervised learning techniques for text classification include:

  • K-means clustering
  • Hierarchical clustering
  • Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA)
  • Non-negative Matrix Factorization (NMF)
  • Neural embeddings

K-means Clustering

K-means clustering is a general-purpose clustering algorithm used in unsupervised learning. The goal of K-means clustering is to group similar data points together into K clusters. This algorithm requires a predetermined number of clusters K, and it works by iteratively assigning data points to the closest centroid until convergence. In the context of text classification, K-means clustering can be used to group similar documents into clusters, where each cluster represents a category or topic. However, a major limitation of K-means clustering is that it assumes the number of clusters K is known a priori, which may not be the case in real-world scenarios.

Hierarchical Clustering

Hierarchical clustering, also known as agglomerative clustering, is another clustering algorithm used in unsupervised learning. This algorithm works by iteratively grouping similar clusters until all data points are in the same cluster. In contrast to K-means clustering, hierarchical clustering does not require a predetermined number of clusters. Instead, the clustering process is guided by a tree-like structure called a dendrogram, which shows the hierarchical relationships between clusters. In the context of text classification, hierarchical clustering can be used to group similar documents into clusters at different levels of granularity, making it suitable for multi-level categorization.

Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA)

Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) is a probabilistic generative model used in unsupervised learning, particularly for topic modeling. The goal of LDA is to identify underlying topics from a collection of documents, where each document is assumed to be a mixture of topics, and each topic is characterized by a distribution of word probabilities. LDA involves two steps: (1) identifying the topic distribution for each document, and (2) identifying the word probabilities for each topic. In the context of text classification, LDA can be used to identify the topics or categories present in a collection of documents.

Non-negative Matrix Factorization (NMF)

Non-negative Matrix Factorization (NMF) is a matrix factorization method used in unsupervised learning for feature extraction and dimensionality reduction. The goal of NMF is to factorize a non-negative matrix into two non-negative matrices, where the product of the two matrices approximates the original matrix. In the context of text classification, NMF can be used to extract latent features from a document-term matrix, where each feature represents a topic or category. These features can then be used to identify the topics or categories present in a collection of documents.

Neural Embeddings

Neural embeddings are a type of unsupervised learning technique used in natural language processing for feature extraction. Neural embeddings involve mapping words or documents to a high-dimensional space, where the proximity of word vectors corresponds to semantic similarity. Word2Vec and Doc2Vec are popular neural embedding models used for text classification. In the context of text classification, neural embeddings can be used to represent words or documents as dense vectors, which can then be used for clustering or classification tasks.

Advancements in Unsupervised Text Classification

In recent years, there have been several advancements in unsupervised text classification due to the increasing availability of large datasets and advances in machine learning techniques. Some of the major advancements include:

  • Semi-supervised learning: Semi-supervised learning combines the benefits of supervised and unsupervised learning. It involves leveraging a small amount of labeled data with a large amount of unlabeled data to achieve better performance. For text classification, semi-supervised learning can be used to improve clustering accuracy and reduce the number of false positives/negatives.
  • Deep learning: Deep learning methods, such as autoencoders, and recurrent neural networks (RNNs) have shown promising results in unsupervised text classification. Autoencoders can be used to reduce the dimensionality of text data, making it easier to cluster or classify, while RNNs can be used to capture temporal dependencies between text sequences, making it suitable for tasks such as document summarization and dialogue modeling.
  • Transfer learning: Transfer learning involves leveraging knowledge gained from one task to improve performance on another related task. In the context of text classification, transfer learning can be used to pretrain a model on a large amount of unlabeled data and fine-tune it on a smaller labeled dataset to achieve better performance.


In conclusion, unsupervised text classification techniques have shown tremendous potential in tackling text classification tasks without the need for labeled data. Different unsupervised learning algorithms, such as K-means clustering, hierarchical clustering, LDA, NMF, and neural embeddings, have been used for text classification, with recent advancements in semi-supervised learning, deep learning, and transfer learning showing promising results. Although unsupervised techniques have some limitations, such as the inability to address class imbalances and the need for hyperparameter tuning, they remain a viable option for many real-world text classification problems.